HEALTH

Coronavirus and COVID-19 Causes, Symptoms and Prevention

Nowadays Coronavirus and COVID-19 is a Global Pandemic and become a very serious illness causing perhaps some millions are suffering each day and months, which may appear in people who have traveled to infected areas. COVID 19 was first originated in Wuhan China in December 19. It has since spread to other countries, including the United States and other 70 locations internationally.

Coronavirus & COVID-19 Causes

Coronavirus & COVID-19 Causes, Symptoms and Prevention

Coronavirus & COVID-19 is an infectious disease of world distribution caused by the most recently discovered        Coronavirus. COVID 19 is caused by the SARS-COV-2 is a third zoonotic coronavirus.  There are some strain of Coronavirus causes different diseases like –

  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)  (incubation period usually 2-7 days but it may be up to 10 days) which first occurred in the Guangdong province in southern china.
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)  (incubation period usually 2-14 days. 5-6 days an average)
  • Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) (the average incubation period usually found 5-6 days but symptoms appears within 11-12 days of exposure) and some causes common cold and flu.

It still unclear source of coronavirus but It believed to be spread from Bats to animal and humans. Corona means “crown” and outside of virus composed from protein that look like a crown.  The virus is primary disperse through droplets of saliva produced by coughing, sneezing, and talking, it may also infected by touching and contaminated surface.

coronavirus

Coronavirus Causes :-

COVID- 19 first get to human from contact with animals. Then it spread from person to person. Most of the time it spreads when an infected person coughs and sneezes. The droplets of saliva disperse about 6 feet away.  By touch, breathe or swallow them the virus get into body and infections causes after incubation in the host person body. Some people shows the symptoms and some people who have the virus but don’t have symptoms, still they can spread the virus.

Virus can also spread from touching a contaminated surface, then touching mouth, nose and eyes. Most of the virus can live on the objects for several hours on various types of surface like

Copper:  about 4 hours, cardboard: about 24 hours, plastic: 2 to 3 days, stainless still surface: 2-3 days. Therefore it very important to disinfect surface to get rid of the virus.

Coronavirus Symptoms :-

1. Symptoms are usually mild and slowly develop. Main common symptoms are as follows.

  • Fever
  • Cold
  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Sneezing
  • Runny nose
  1. Less common symptoms are as follows.
  • sore throat
  • nasal congestion
  • headache
  • Muscle ache and body pain.
  • Repeated shaking with chills
  • Loss of smell and taste
  • Other respiratory symptoms
  • nausea

COVID-19 is more likely to cause common cold and flu and shortness of breath and other respiratory symptoms. About 80% of people recover from the symptoms without any special medical treatment. However, some older adults and people become seriously ill after being exposed to COVID -19. There is no evidence that children are at greater risk for getting the virus.

CORONAVIRUS RISK FACTORS :-

People who have some medical illness like cardiovascular disease, sickle cell disease, Chronic respiratory disease, Type 2 Diabetics, cancer, chronic kidney diseases,  weakened immune systems, Obesity, Pregnancy, moderate and severe asthma, high blood pressure, liver disease, Thalassemia, type – 1 diabetes, Smoking, Cystic fibrosis, Pulmonary fibrosis, Dementia are at the highest risk of developing more severe symptoms.

CORONAVIRUS PREVENTION :-

  • Hand wash – wash your hand with the soap and water or clean them with a 60% alcohol-based sanitizer.This will destroys viruses on your hand.
  • Follows the social distancing: stay home stay safe. You should stay home as much as possible, due to some emergency you have to go outside, keep a distance of at least 6 feet away from each others.
  • Cover nose and mouth in a public place: mask most useful to cover nose and mouth, it helps to prevent enters the droplets of saliva in the body from other peoples while talking. Also, cover the nose and mouth with tissue paper or close while sneezing, coughing.  Wear a cloth face covering to protect others by keeping social distancing.
  • Avoid touching face: coronaviruses live on the various surfaces you touch for several hours. if you touch the surfaces they get on your hands and you touch your nose, mouth or eye, they can get into the body.
  • Keep clean and disinfect: clean the hand with soap and water before and after cooking and eating. Disinfect surfaces you often touch like tables, chairs, doorknobs, toilets, sinks, switches, laptops, cupboards, remotes, frame, bags etc.
  • Don’t eat raw meat: avoid to eat raw meat or incomplete cook food. Which may causes infection. And eat other vegetables and fruits after clean.
  • Avoid travelling to infected place: don’t travel to affected areas. People who have weak immunity which may early get sick with infections and also become a carrier of viruses.

DO’S AND DON’T FOR EVERYONE

DO’S DON’T
Hand washAvoid close contact with anyone
Cover mouth and nose Don’t spit
Stay indoorsAvoid using public transport
Consult a doctor if sickAvoid self-medication
Participate in social distancingDon’t panic
Do work from homeDon’t shake hands or give hugs as greetings.

 DIAGNOSIS OF CORONAVIRUSES :-

If a person feels symptoms of specific to coronavirus.  Physicians gets in touch with the CDC. There are many specific labs set up for coronavirus testing.

There are different kinds of coronavirus tests that can be done as follows.

  1. Swab test. In this test sample is collected from the nose and throat by using a special swab.
  2. Blood test. For this test blood sample is collected from a vein in the arm.
  3. Sputum test. In this case, take sputum in a cup that is accumulated in the lungs and come out with a cough.
  4. Nasal aspirate; in this test, a saline solution injected into the nose and then the sample is collected with light suction.
  5. Tracheal aspirate. A bronchoscope is put into the mouth to reach your lungs from where a sample is collected.
  6. Rapid diagnostic test based on the antigen (RDT). Sample is taken from nose, throat and lungs. This test based on the detection of viral protein (Antigens) . This is speedy and accurate diagnosis method and its usage is CDC-approved.
  7. Rapid diagnostic test based on antibody (RDT). This test base on the detection of antibodies in the blood of COVID -19 infected people. Age, medication, infections, severity of disease are the factors affects the strength of antibody response.

TREATMENT :-

There is no specific treatment for COVID -19, although treatments and vaccines are currently under study. Supportive and symptomatic therapy use for the treatment of COVID -19 patients.

Some example of therapies used for these illnesses as follows.

  • Antiviral medicines
  • Blood plasma transfusions
  • Vitamins
  • Steroids to reduce lungs swelling.

Breathing support like mechanical ventilation.

About the author

Jija Lode Itankar

Myself Jija Lode Itankar.I have done M. Pharma (Pharmacognosy).Now I am working as a Lecturer in SVCP WARORA Dist Chandrapur Maharashtra State India

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